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Do you have to replace your Linux file system but it may well't face the effort? This enables you to convert ext2 and ext3 to an entire set up of ext4 with out breaking.
Linux File Systems
Should you have been polite, they might call you and respect the ext3 file system because it was back to the roots of the poor previous ext2 file methods from 1993, fairly than the previous word. The computer ext3 is vintage. And ext2 is an archaeological discovery.
The fashionable Linux system file system is ext4, which was launched in 2008. It is quicker, much less vulnerable to fragmentation, capable of handling larger file methods, and larger information have extra accurate information, date marks, and did we point out it quicker? A lot quicker.
OK, I bought tea, this
Assume it via. The truth is, you in all probability don't want to upgrade to your file system
It makes more sense to improve your complete Linux system. Upgrading refers to a few knowledge backups, system wiping, reinstalling trendy distribution, and knowledge restoration. Go to the entire update. Get the advantages of recent Linux distribution with up-to-date software program and a clean, up-to-date and reinstalled file system.
When you can't run a contemporary Linux gadget on your hardware, even one of many lightweight distributions, corresponding to Lubuntu, LinuxLite, or CrunchBang ++, and also you undoubtedly need to stay on Linux, you’ve warnings.
Improve to file ext4, you want to go to kernel version 2.6.28 or later. So in the event you don't have a kernel model or greater model, you want to update your kernel first.
Warning: Don't even do this without the kernel model requirement. You determine on a pc that has stopped operating. Be sure to use the kernel model earlier than you proceed.
Be sure to have the Linux model put in CD and hold it in standby mode. Updating the file system isn’t dangerous.
Backups are a safety internet. Earlier than you do anything, make some backups of the totally different backup tools and make it possible for the previous Linux installation is beneficial on your onerous disk. If something goes flawed, you possibly can reinstall the previous Linux and restore the info.
You also want to run a brand new reside CD / DVD from the present Linux distribution to update the file system. Be sure to are a type of who are at hand.
In any other case, this text has been studied with the Ubuntu Jaunty Jackalope installation released in April 2009. It additionally makes use of the ext3 file as a file system
John Wayne stated: "The courage was upset, however you’re nonetheless within the saddle. I like your courage.
The first thing we should always do is verify the kernel model of uname. The Uname command can show totally different knowledge varieties
On a Linux pc, open the terminal window and sort the following command: sort uname, area, -r, and press ENTER.
The Linux version of this pc is the core model 2.6.28-11,  Critically, when you’ve got not met this requirement, cease now. Shut sufficient, simply not enough.
Now we’ll examine the disc tags with a blk that acknowledges the system's block units.
arduous disk ( sda) with a file system (sda1) installed in / dev / sda1 That is the ext3 file system, which is the file system we’re going to convert.
There’s also a file system referred to as sw
Start with Stay CD
Stay CD and restart your pc. To restart your pc from a CD, press the important thing again to restart. Urgent the button appears initially of the startup. Be fast – the window of opportunities gained't final lengthy. In the event you overlook it, restart it and check out once more.
For those who start the Stay CD setting, just remember to do not start the installation by chance. Take your time and skim the options out there, and if it's something that says something like "try the name of the distribution", select this feature.
Grow to be Root
Open the terminal window and sort the next command. This makes you effective and means you don't have to write sudo earlier than each command.
Notice that the command immediate has changed. You're good.
Identifying File Systems
We’d like to determine file techniques that when again see how they appear on this Linux version.
 See the output as follows:
The beforehand identified sda1 file system was detected and recognized on a stay CD with Linux.
One other is file system conversion
Converting file system
Listed here are two commands, one is ext2 ext4 and one is for ext2 ext4. converts from ext3 to ext4. Ensure you use the appropriate one!
Convert to ext2 as ext4 Use:
tune2fs -O Dimensions, uninit_bg, dir_index, has_journal / dev / sda1
Convert to ext3 as ext4 using:  tune2fs -O Dimensions , uninit_bg, dir_index / dev / sda1
It's a bit disappointing because it doesn't seem to happen a lot. You come back to the command prompt. Should you see a problem, it's possible to be error messages.
Verify File System
Though errors aren’t marked, give your self a radical scan and examine the whole file system for problems. We use the command e2fsck. This can be a software for checking the integrity of file techniques. It may possibly additionally attempt to repair its detected issues. The E2fsck software works with ext2, ext3 and even ext4 file methods.
-P (prese) choice e2fsck tries to fix errors and -f (drive) choice e2fsck checks the file system despite the fact that the file system appears to be clear
e2fsck -pf / dev / sda1
No errors have been reported.
Installing the File System
We’d like to customize the file system desk (fstab) and the grub boot loader to work with the rebuilt file system. A file system have to be installed for this function. We install / mnt. We previously identified the file system as sda1, so the command is:
-type ext4 / dev / sda1 / mnt
Now that it's applicable, we should always find a way to get an inventory of filesystems. Verify. The basis of the file system is on the mount point / mnt.  ls / mnt
It's encouraging. It seems to be like we’re waiting for it.
RELATED: How to set up and unload storage units from a Linux terminal
Modifying from fstab
The Fstab file must modify and modify references to ext3 (or ext2) if the file system is transformed to ext4
In this instance The reside CD used has a nano editor. It's a easy little editor, so we're utilizing it. If "nano" isn’t obtainable on stay cd, it has another editor that’s compressed on linux with cd.
nano / mnt / and so on / fstab
The Nano Editor window seems. You need to search for the occurrences of "ext3" or "ext2" and alter it to "ext4". In this example, there was ext3, which is highlighted.
Ext3 was changed by … ext4.
Save the file and exit the editor. In Nano Ctrl + O, save the file and close the editor with Ctrl + X.
As a result of we’ve got put in the sda1 file system / mnt, the paths within the file system directories have been environment friendly all have been moved one degree decrease than normal. Subsequently, the best way we gave nano / mnt / and so forth / fstab as an alternative of the standard / and so forth / fstab file.  Da grub expects to find issues in sure locations that we’ve to put in such a system seem normal. The file system have to be rooted underneath / not beneath / mnt. The Chroot command allows us to execute the command shell and define the desired root level.
The command used is:
chroot / mnt
Please notice that the immediate has modified
Now we will acquire the update grub command. Learn the fstab file and configure yourself.
As soon as the grub is reconfigured, we should set up a new grub instance on the disk. Notice: this can be a sda exhausting disk, not a sda1 file system. Don't rely "1", sort "sda".
grub-install / dev / sda
Restart the system and remove the reside CD. If the system is restarted, open the terminal window and sort the next command:
As we will see, the file system is now an ext4 file system.
The machine studied in this article lasted so long that it restarted (over ten minutes). It was assumed that something had gone flawed and that he would never come back.
Perhaps it was because it was a virtual machine or perhaps some part of the file system conversion happens through the first boot. Either method, endurance gained, and it came once more. If the system does one thing comparable, await it.
The next restarts have been as quick as normal
Upgrade from Linux
Okay, we obtained it. But you still use an atypical Hybrid with an previous Linux model of a modern file system.
If shifting to a brand new file system is essential to you and your gadget can transfer to the current file, Linux distribution is the most effective route. Take pleasure in all the other security and software advantages that might end result.
However, if there’s nothing else – and typically we don't have the choices we would like, we will get these steps Upgrade to your file system
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